Chemical Compounds In Perfume
Perfume is a product that is used in the daily life of both women and men. Perfume or fragrance oil is a mixture of essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give a fragrant smell to the human body, object or room. Perfumes that are sold in the market do not all use pure essential oils (both natural and synthetic), but have gone through a mixing and dilution process. For the mixture consists of essential oils, distilled water and alcohol. The concentration content of the fragrance ingredients will affect the intensity and longevity of the fragrance. The higher the concentration of fragrance ingredients, the stronger and longer lasting the perfume will be, otherwise if the concentration is low, the fragrance will make the fragrance less and not last long. Apart from using extracts from flowers and herbal plants, perfume products also use organic solvents. The types of organic solvents that are often used in perfume products are ethanol, ethylene glycol, acetone, amyl acetate and aquadest. Every perfume product contains additional solvents that function as a medium or foundation, whether it's original or synthetic perfume. We need to know that the percentage of chemical content in perfume is between 30% depending on the type of product. However, from several market analyzes, 95% of the chemicals contained in perfume products are synthetic chemicals made from petroleum which are the descendants of benzene, aldehydes or substances that are generally known to be toxic. Some of the chemicals commonly contained in perfumes include ethanol, benzaldehyde, benzyl acetate, a-pinene, acetone, benzyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, linalool, a-terpinene, methylene chloride, a-terpineol, camphor, and limonene.
There are several classifications of perfume as follows:
1. The user
o Perfumes for men, for example fougere, oriental and chypre
o Perfumes for women, for example floral, oriental and chypre
o Top note, the first fragrance that smells of perfume and the most volatile, has a short duration, min 30 minutes. An example of a top note is citrus and fruity which comes from the fragrance of fruits.
o Middle note, a fragrance that smells deeper than the top note type, has a duration of around 30 minutes to 1 hour. An example of a middle note is a plant that comes from the fragrance of flowers.
o Base note, the fragrance that is left behind lasts a long time and can still be smelled after several hours of use. This type of perfume has the smallest volatility. For example, the base note is woodyparum, which comes from the fragrance of wood.
3. The concentration
The amount and type of solvent mixed with perfume will determine a perfume which will be considered as a type of perfume extract, eau de perfume, eau de toilette, eau de cologne and after shave. Percentage volume concentration in perfume is as follows:
o Perfume extract (extract), this type of perfume has a long lasting fragrance, which is up to 48 hours, because it contains 20-40% concentrate without perfume mixed with alcohol and is the most expensive.
o Eau de parfum or commonly abbreviated as EDP, the fragrance of this perfume lasts up to 24 hours. The concentration level is around 15-22% with a little mixed with alcohol. Eau de parfum is perfect for workers who are active all day. The aroma is alluring at a more affordable price.
o Eau de toilette or commonly abbreviated as EDT, the fragrance of this perfume lasts quite a long time with a concentration of around 12% and is mixed with alcohol. This perfume comes in spray form. For the price of eau de toilette type perfume, it is more affordable for those who want to always look good and suitable for use in all situations that do not require a long time.
o Eau de cologne or commonly abbreviated as EDC, this type of perfume smells the lightest because it contains a concentrate of 5% and contains the most alcohol of the three previous types of perfume. Eau de cologne perfumes are usually marketed as body splashes, body sprays and body mists.
o Aftershave, has very low aromatic compounds, only 1% to 3%, therefore the scent doesn't last long.
Fragrances grouping is a classification system used by the modern perfumery industry to place a perfume into one of the following types of fragrances:
o Floral, which is a soft, sweet and fresh combination of several flowers, floral and fruity, floral and aldehydes and notes with aromas like powder, oriental floral with orange blossom and sweet spices. Fragrances with fruit compositions other than citrus are included in the floral fragrance category. In the past this type of fragrance was very masculine, but now that has changed, it is very rare for floral perfumes for men.
o Citrus, namely the strength of the aroma of lime, lemon, bergamot and others. A type of citrus fragrance but popular until now because of its refreshing and energetic nature. This type of fragrance is especially good for those with an active lifestyle or young people.
o Oriental, which is a strong scent, long lasting and exotic. Commonly used by men and women. Usually characterized by warm, sweet and spicy flavors such as vanilla, tonka bean and heliotrope; the mysterious smell of incense and resin; ambergris which is animalic; or the spiciness of cardamom. Oriental fragrances are good for use in cold areas, at night.
o Woody, namely the dominance of strong and classy wood aromas, especially sandalwood, cedar, aloes and vetiver wood.
o Chypre¸ is a type of citrus woddy mossy which is unisex. Chypre is marked by the contrast between fresh citrus and woody notes of oakmoss in the background.
o Fougere, characterized by a sharp woody and herbal aroma. One of the most popular types of men's fragrances because it is very masculine. Contains notes of lavender, fern and oakmoss.
o Water, usually contains notes of seawater, ozone, water flowers and grasses. This type of fragrance is great for casual wear, on the weekends, or for a walk because it's so cool.
Hope this article helps!